Mathias Brandewinder on .NET, F#, VSTO and Excel development, and quantitative analysis / machine learning.
3. March 2013 11:01

Recently, I had a few interesting discussions on F# code readability. One argument I often hear about F# is that by virtue of its succinctness, it increases the signal-to-noise ratio. I certainly found this to be true: when the entire code fits on your screen, and you don’t have to scroll around to figure out what is going on, navigating a code base becomes significantly simpler.

Relatedly, because the F# syntax is so much lighter than C#, some of my coding habits evolved. I stick to the “one public type per file” guideline in C#, and initially did the same in F#. That didn’t last long: declaring a Record Type in F# is a one-liner, and dedicating an entire file to it seems… overkill:

type Person = { FirstName: string; LastName: string; BornOn: DateTime }


As a result, my F# solutions tend to contain less files, and each file is more “self-contained”, usually declaring a couple of types and implementing some operations involving these types in a module. Again, less navigation required: open one file, and the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth is right there on your screen.

In my experience, this also makes refactoring tools much less important in F# than C#. The lack of refactoring tools in F# used to be one of my main gripes with using the language. At that point, I don’t really care that much any more, because I don’t really need them that badly. Sure, it would be nice to propagate a rename automatically – but lots of the refactoring tools I commonly use with C# deal with navigating around or moving pieces of code from file to file (extract class, method, etc…), all problems that are minor when your code sits in just a couple of files, and the “what class owns what responsibility” issue vanishes because your functions are at a module level.

Conversely, I have found myself annoyed a few times looking at F# code where succinctness erred on the side of obfuscation. This tendency for terse naming conventions seems to be a cultural heritage from other functional languages, and makes sense to an extent – functional code tends to focus on applying generic transformations to “things”, and not that much on what the “thing” might be.

As an illustration, I have seen often code along these lines:

match list with
| x::xs -> ...


No need to go full on Java on your code, but a bit of naming effort goes a long way in making code intelligible:

match list with
| head::tail -> ...


That being said, extreme terseness can be fun, at times – I don’t think I’ll see a C# Game of Life implementation that fits in a Tweet any time soon .

Another readability aspect I found interesting with F# code is that the order of declarations matters, and the order of the files in the project matters as well. This seemingly odd constraint has a good reason – it makes the awesome F# type inference work.

Over time, I actually began to appreciate this not as a constraint, but almost as a feature. One problem I keep running into when I look into a C# code base I am not familiar with is “damn! where should I start?”. There is no clear way to proceed through the code, and I have ended up countless times navigating haphazardly from class to class, hoping to stumble upon a solid starting point.

I don’t really have that problem with F# code bases – essentially, I either start from the first line of the first file, and read forward, or the last line of the last file, working my way back. Either way works; the first one reads like a constructive proof, walking you every step to the ineluctable conclusion, the second one starts with the “high point” of the code base, digging progressively into the nitty-gritty and assumptions that were made to get there.

Someone reacted by saying that I was “just rationalizing”. There is probably some truth in that – but I believe there is something to be said for having a natural reading order in a code base. As a side-note, this is also one of my minor annoyances with GitHub: in the browser, the files from an F# repository are displayed in alphabetical order, which loses the logical project organization.

I might also change my tune when I have to deal with a truly large F# code base, which hasn’t happened to me yet. At that point, I may long for more freedom in organizing my code, and, say, arrange it by topical folders. For the moment, though, this hasn’t been an issue for me!

15. October 2009 18:03

I recently finished reading the Art of Unit Testing, by Roy Osherove (Manning); here are a few thoughts on the book.

# Who to give it too

This is an excellent book for the C# developer with solid foundations in object-oriented design, who has already some exposure to writing unit tests. If you have worked on a decent-scale project, and found yourself thinking “hmmm, I am sure there is a smarter way to write these tests”, you should definitely get that book. Note that while it will be extremely useful to the test-driven development practitioner, this is NOT a book on TDD.More...

10. October 2009 07:36

Much ado on the interwebs has followed Joel’s recent post on the now-infamous Duct Tape Programmer. You have to give it to Joel, he has a talent for writing pieces which get lots of people really worked up – what in some circles is called trolling. Out of curiosity, I looked up Google Trends, and unless some other piece of hot news related to duct tape surfaced on Sept 23rd, you can see with your naked eye the amount of buzz this one single post managed to generate. Impressive.

More...

6. October 2009 06:09

Silicon Valley Code Camp version 4.0 took place this week-end, and was a big success, judging by the numbers and the happy faces. Congratulations to Peter Kellner and the team for a tremendous organization!

Personally, I wanted to give a big thank-you to the people who attended my session on Test-Driven Development – and for bearing with my voice, which was pretty shaky. I got sick this week and wasn’t sure until Saturday evening if I could do it, because on Thursday my voice was totally gone. I think I had more herbal tea with honey this week than in my entire life, but you guys made it all worth it: I had a great time giving my presentation, and you guys rocked!

As I said during the session, the theory behind TDD is pretty succinct, so there isn’t much in the slides themselves worth posting. Instead, I thought I would list a few pointers:

NUnit: you can find it here. I recommend checking out the Quick Start page, which covers most of what you need to start writing unit tests. I have written a post on data-driven tests here.

While we are talking about tools, I haven’t presented it during the session, but I really like TestDriven.Net. There is a free community version for your personal use. It’s a Visual Studio add-on which allows you to run and debug your tests from Visual Studio.

Even though it’s a Java book, and this session was for .NET developers, I really recommend Kent Beck’s book Test-Driven Development by Example. It’s very easy to read, and will get you started on the right foot. It’s also very well written – one of my favorite books!

The other book I recommend is the Art of Unit Testing, by Roy Osherove. I just finished it, and I wish I had it with me a few years ago, when I began writing tests seriously :) The book is technically about unit testing and not TDD, and it is a .NET book. I highly recommend it, it is chock-full of good advice, and covers way more than just testing.

That’s it! If you are interested in either the slides or code, let me know, and I’ll gladly post them, too. In the meanwhile, thanks again for coming, and… happy testing!

29. September 2009 16:02

I had an Eureka moment today, and realized that I was trying hard to resolve the wrong problem, when what was needed was a change of frame.

I have been developing an application which tracks differences between Excel worksheets, and displays them in a layout similar to Excel itself. The user can navigate through the sheet on display by using two scrollbars, just like he would with Excel.

To achieve this, my approach so far has been to read the data, create a grid using WPF, adding one cell control to the grid for each cell in the spreadsheet, and navigate “over” that grid using the scroll bars.

This approach works well as long as the spreadsheet is small, but for larger sheets – say, 200 x 200 cells - the time needed to create the cells and add them to the grid was getting pretty long, so I focused my attention on figuring out a way to populate the grid faster, without much success.

Then yesterday, someone wrote this on StackOverflow:

I'm going to go out on a limb here and say that trying to add 40,000 controls is your real bottleneck; not so much as to how you're adding the controls.

Indeed – that’s completely correct.This didn’t answer my issue directly, but it has been liberating, and got me to rethink the question from a different angle – do I really need 40,000 cells?

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