I am still working my way through “Machine Learning in Action”, converting the samples from Python to F#. I am currently in the middle of chapter 6, dedicated to Support Vector Machines, which has given me more trouble than the previous ones. This post will be sharing my current progress: the code I have so far is a working translation of the naïve SVM implementation, presented in the first half of the chapter. We’ll get to kernels, and the full Platt SMO algorithm in a later post – today will be solely discussing the simple, un-optimized version.

Two factors slowed me down with this chapter: the math, and Python.

The math behind the algorithm is significantly more involved than the other algorithms, and I won’t even try to go into why it works. I recommend reading An Idiot’s guide to SVMs, which I found a pretty complete and accessible explanation of the theory behind SVMs. I will focus instead on the implementation, which was in itself a bit challenging.

First, the Python code uses algebra quite a bit, and I found that deciphering what was going on required a bit of patience. Take a line like the following:

fXi = (float)(multiply(alphas, labelMat).T*(dataMatrix*dataMatrix[i,:].T))+b

I am reasonably well versed in linear algebra, but figuring out what this is saying takes some attention. Granted, I have no experience with Python and NumPy, so my whining is probably a bit unfair. Still, I thought the code was not very readable, and it motivated me to see if that could be improved, and as a result I ended up moving away from heavy algebra notation.

Then, the algorithm is implemented as a Deep Arrow. A main loop performs computations and evaluates conditions at multiple points, using **continue** to exit / short-circuit the evaluation. The code I ended up with doesn’t use mutation, but is still heavily indented, which I am not happy about - I’ll work on that later.

## Simplified algorithm implementation

*Note: as the title of the post indicates, this is work in progress. The current implementation works, but has some obvious flaws (see last paragraph), which I intend to fix in upcoming posts. My intent is to share my progression through the problem – please don’t take this as a good reference SVM implementation. Hopefully we’ll get there soon, but this is not it, not yet.*

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